Metasploit tincd module officially released

It took a while to do PoC changes, port from python to ruby, port from ruby to a metasploit module, change the used library in ruby, divide into two files (a tincd protocol library and an exploit module), write ROP chains for x86 and ARM architecture, support various operating systems and make all the necessary changes to make ruby people happy. But it was really a good experience.

I’m happy to announce that my tincd buffer overflow module I wrote a while ago is now officially part of Metasploit.

Hiding files in GIF comments

Firewall, IDS, IPS, Load Balancers, Proxies, Antivirus, MAC address filtering and no USB ports. A lot of companies are filtering the information/data that is getting into their network (and out of their network). But in the end the user wants to get information from the internet. Let’s face it: Text is information. So let’s use text to get a binary executable into the corporate network. While it’s relatively easy to convert text into binaries and back on Linux and Mac (thank you bash!), it was sometimes a pain in Windows until Powershell. As far as I know Powershell is available on all Windows 7 and newer machines.

This is not a new technique, it’s already in use, for example in the SET. I read a blogpost which explains exactly what we are doing here, I just wanted to try it myself and I changed the encoding from decimal to hex, which removes the necessity for a delimiter and makes the text data smaller in general. Additional I’ll show how to hide the information in a GIF image and how to extract it on a Powershell.

Let’s first convert our binary into text (hex encoding). So first prepare the text we want to put somewhere on the internet. Here is a small python one-liner that converts notepad.exe into the required format.

In Python on Windows:

.\python.exe -c "file('C:\\Users\\user\\Desktop\\notepad_hex.txt','wb').write(file('C:\\Windows\\notepad.exe','rb').read().encode('hex'))"

In Python on Unix:

python -c "file('/tmp/notepad_hex.txt','wb').write(file('/tmp/notepad.exe','rb').read().encode('hex'))"

If you open notepad_hex.txt now, you only see hexadecimal numbers:


That’s already the text version you can put on a website and you can access from your company network and your company desktop machine (eg. pastebin). If you can access the notepad_hex.txt on a web server directly, it’s probably better if you use the “save as” dialogue of your browser to store it (it’s quite a long hex string). As soon as your back in your company network, save the contents to a file. Let’s assume you saved it to C:\Users\user\Desktop\notepad_hex.txt

So let’s convert the text back to an executable in our Powershell. I just adopted the code from the blogpost:

[string]$hex = get-content -path C:\Users\user\Desktop\notepad_hex.txt
[Byte[]]$temp = $hex -split '([a-f0-9]{2})' | foreach-object { if ($_) {[System.Convert]::ToByte($_,16)}}
[System.IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("C:\Users\user\Desktop\notepad.exe", $temp)

You should have notepad.exe on your Desktop now. This will also work with other file formats, for example zip files, although much slower with increasing file size.

Of course there are other methods of smuggling data into the corporate network. For example if you prefer to put the text data into a picture, you can use ImageMagick (included in the Ubuntu repositories and Mac Ports) in a shell. So for example to put the hex data into a gif comment, use the following commands (first rename an image to black.gif):

python -c "file('/tmp/something_hex.txt','wb').write(file('/tmp/something.exe','rb').read().encode('hex'))"
hex=`cat /tmp/something_hex.txt`
convert -comment "$hex" black.gif black2.gif

Note that this method on the command line only works for small hex data. I got an “Argument list too long” error for notepad, so use this command instead if it is a big file:

convert -comment @/tmp/notepad_hex.txt black.gif notepad.gif

But how do we get the data out of the picture in our Powershell? Let’s have a look at the nice ASCII Art for the Comment Extension in the GIF89a format spec:

    c. Syntax.

    7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0        Field Name                    Type
0  |               |       Extension Introducer          Byte
1  |               |       Comment Label                 Byte

   |               |
N  |               |       Comment Data                  Data Sub-blocks
   |               |

0  |               |       Block Terminator              Byte

          i) Extension Introducer - Identifies the beginning of an extension
          block. This field contains the fixed value 0x21.

          ii) Comment Label - Identifies the block as a Comment Extension.
          This field contains the fixed value 0xFE.

          iii) Comment Data - Sequence of sub-blocks, each of size at most
          255 bytes and at least 1 byte, with the size in a byte preceding
          the data.  The end of the sequence is marked by the Block

          iv) Block Terminator - This zero-length data block marks the end of
          the Comment Extension.

So it basically says we have to look for 0x21FE and read the number of bytes specified in the first byte. Then read again the next byte to see how many bytes we have to read and so on. Let’s do that in a Powershell:

[string]$picture = get-content -path C:\Users\user\Desktop\notepad.gif
[string]$delimiter = [Convert]::ToChar(0x21)+[Convert]::ToChar(0xFE)
[string[]]$commentarray = $picture -split $delimiter,2
[string]$junk = $commentarray[1]
[string]$hex = ""
	[int]$length = [int][char]$junk.substring(0,1)
	$hex = $hex + $junk.substring(1,$length)
	$junk = $junk.substring($length+1)
	if($length -lt 255){
[Byte[]]$temp = $hex -split '([a-f0-9]{2})' | foreach-object { if ($_) {[System.Convert]::ToByte($_,16)}}
[System.IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("C:\Users\user\Desktop\notepad.exe", $temp)

I feel like Powershell and me could get good friends. If you want to try it yourself, save the following notepad.gif on your Desktop, change the username in the paths of the code above and copy/paste it into a Powershell.

Android Pentest Tools

During my research for the Android platform and in some pentests I tried several things and used different techniques. This is kind of a summary post and I packed some of my tools together into one zip file. The contents are:

  • Importing Burp CA into the Android phone, which I already wrote a blog post about
  • Some Ubuntu bash scripts that can be used to compile statically linked ARM binaries for Android, which I already wrote a blog post about
  • Decompiling/Disassembling bash scripts that I used to disassemble/decompile 3’500 apps from the market, including the Apple Script for Mac to automate the JD-GUI decompilation
  • A simple Python script that can be used to install a list of apps on your Android mobile
  • A list of Google Market App IDs, one list with free apps, one list with apps that cost money
  • A bash script that creates the Metasploit ARM reverse TCP shell payload
  • GingerBreak2 and RageAgainstTheCage exploit but including Ubuntu bash ARM compilation scripts, that let you compile the binary on your own instead of using the shipped ARM binary (I only tested the RageAgainstTheCage exploit)
  • A list of interesting files on the Android filesystem, that serves as a starting point if you don’t know where to start. Having a rooted phone to access the entire filesystem and using a text editor (.xml and .conf files) and a sqlite db viewer (files ending on .db) you’ll find pretty interesting stuff.
  • A file with the Hidden Secret Codes I found on my HTC Desire and in some apps. Actually only two of the 3’500 apps I decompiled had secret codes: The Twicca Twitter client (dial *#*#459338#*#*) and Baidu, the chinese search engine app (*#*#22438#*#*)

You can download the zip file here. I didn’t want to make up my own Android tool project svn or anything like that, but if you have your own toolset (e.g. you’re the developer of one of the tools below), I’d be happy to give my scripts to your project. If you have any feedback, just let me know, I’m happy to discuss it.

Addtionally, I thought I’ll write down some project/tools I used or I want to look into in the future:

  • Androguard
  • Apkinspector (GUI combining apktool, dex2jar, a Java decompiler, byte code, etc.)
  • DED
  • androidAuditTools
  • Smartphonesdumbapps
  • Taintdroid (Privacy issues)
  • Android Forensic Toolkit
  • viaExtract (There’s a VMWare with viaExtract installed. Does standard Forensic for Android: calls, sms, etc. Needs USB debug on)

I might update this post once in a while

Cross-compiling bash for Android ARM

Most Android mobiles are running on the ARM architecture. Therefore you have to use a special compiler for such binaries. The Android SDK built in adb shell has no auto completion, which is really a nightmare in my opinion. Therefore I was looking for a way to compile bash for Android. Altough a lot of tutorials tell you to download the CodeSourcery cross-compiling toolchain, they are not really necessary (at least if you do a static compile like I do here).

I wrote a script that compiles bash-4.0. Should work out-of-the-box in Ubuntu 11.04. Edit: By now I’ve also put it on github:

#BASH source code from 
#Example for compiling bash on Ubuntu 11.04
#Warnings during the compilation process seem to be alright, errors would be bad

echo "[INFO] Checking if packages installed"
dpkg --status autoconf | grep -q not-installed
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "[INFO] Apt-get installing autoconf, please provide sudo password"
    sudo apt-get install autoconf
    echo "[INFO] autoconf already installed, good"
dpkg --status gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi | grep -q not-installed
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "[INFO] Apt-get installing gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi, please provide sudo password"
    sudo apt-get install gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi
    echo "[INFO] gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi already installed, good"
echo "[INFO] Starting bash source code download"
tar xvfz $BASH_VERSION.tar.gz
CC=`which arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc`
./configure --host=arm-linux-gnueabi --enable-static-link --without-bash-malloc
make clean
file bash | grep -q ARM
if [ ! $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "[ERROR] Looks like bash was incorrectly compiled with another compler than arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc"
    echo "[ERROR] The resulting bash binary will not run on ARM, therefore aborting!"
arm-linux-gnueabi-strip -o bash-stripped -s bash
cp ./bash-stripped ../bash
cd ..
file bash
echo "[INFO] Your bash binary is finished (file 'bash' in current directory), happy autocompleting on ARM!"

By changing the variable BASH_VERSION to bash-4.1 you should be able to compile an even newer version. Bash-4.2 did not work for me.